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The S-100 Bus FPGA V2 Board.     
  V2 FPAG Board
   
  V2 Final Board_S1

Introduction
The original S100 bus FPGA board has proven to be a very useful development board.  The board can be morphed into many functions.  If you are not familiar with that board it is essential you read up on that board before going any further here.  Much of what is written here assumes you are familiar with the "V1" board.  There also is an introduction to FPGAs and how to program and use them.

This "V2" board is an extension of the original board.  All the board chips are the same and in general much of the software is the same so a switch and replace should be easy.
That said, this V2 FPGA board has a number of useful enhancements.

1.  A set of four 8X2 pin "shield sockets" has been added to the board so that various separate FPGA shield mini-boards can be separately fabricated and used with the same board.  This is modeled on the Arduino Shields board concept.  Such simple 2 layer boards can be simply fabricated by any PCB manufacture.

2.  There is a prototype area on the board (as the was on the original board),  but now a
Arduino Uno circuit is also added with its corresponding Arduino Shields sockets.  This would allow one to interface the FPGA with an ATMEGA 328 CPU or run it separately.

3. Every usable I/O pin from the Cyclone IV FPGA is brought out to the "FPGA Shields Sockets".  Most are drive through 3.3V to 5V level converters. Some 8 are connected directly to the FPGA I/O pins and thus run at 3.3V levels.

4. Every major S100 bus line is interfaced to the FPGA I/O pins such that the S100 bus can be run as a bus master or bus slave.

5. A number of minor errors/improvements have been corrected. The principal change being  the removal of the two 74LS245 data bus drivers (U8 & U9) on the V1 Board. These were not needed -- even for a 21 slot motherboard.  The 74LVC245s appear to have adequate drive and fan-out capability. Also the S100 Reset signal (pin 75) can be brought directly into the FPGA.


The Board.
As for the V1 board, broadly speaking our first FPGA board will be loosely modeled on our Edison II board.  With programming,  this FPGA board can (in theory), be configured to behave as almost any S100 bus board. Either as 1970's legacy boards or our own recent S100Computers boards. 

One thing that actually takes a bit of time to realize is how programmable these chips are. As we will see below, even with every major S100 bus pin "taken care of"  in our applications,  we have not used up even close to 1% of the FPGAs total gates capacity.   The CoreEPC10 unit has a total of 244 programmable GPIO pins.  The Cyclone IV actually has more, but they are used on the adaptor board for programming, diagnostic LEDs etc.  With that number of GPIO pins one feels like a kid in a candy store.  Unlike situations like for example the Edison CPU board,  where one has to multiplex pins,  in this case we almost always can work with dedicated I/O pins.    These pins BTW can be configured as inputs, outputs or bidirectional.   Our first "application" will be to program the board to behave as a simple port I/O board.  Later we will work up to more complete situations where the board will act as a true CPU driven bus slave or indeed a bus master.    Yes, amongst the code libraries for the Cyclone IV are very powerful CPU libraries!  There require very complex FPGA coding, but again, it's all done for us as a "black box" which one can easily utilize.

Here is a very oversimplified diagram of the board layout.
       
  Board layout 

The board has four 2X8 0.1" connector sockets  to attach your custom FPGA shield boards. There is actual a small patch area on the board itself as well. As for the V1 board the shield boards may be used for any application you might come up with. At any time one has absolute control and access to any S100 bus line. In a bus master configuration it could be in fact be the only CPU in the S100 bus.  As for the V1 board this is a 4 layer board.
  
    V2B Board layout
   
Here is the pinout for the FPGA Shields board.  Please make a printout of it and always refer to it during construction.
    
    Shields Pinout
 
Please note that while most of the pins are 'buffered" via the 74VSL245 level shifters (and run at 5 Volts),  16 (P11),  however have direct connections to the FPGA I/O pins. 
These pins must never see a voltage greater than 3.3V.  Please use extreme care with this. You can blow out an FPGA I/O pin or the whole FPGA itself with voltages greater than 3.3 Volts. They all reside on the P11 connector. They are there primarily for bidirectional interface I/O pins.
Here is an example of a "Shields #0" prototype board and a "Shields #1" board we will use (see below).
   
    Shields


Step By Step Building the FPGA Board
The build instructions are fairly simple for this board but because it is a complex board building it should not be rushed.  As always, first examine the bare board carefully for scratches or damaged traces, use a magnifying glass if need be.  A broken trace is almost impossible to detect by eye on a completed board.
   
Solder in all the required IC sockets, resistors, resistor arrays, capacitors, jumpers, and the Pololu 5V and 3.3V (LM3940) voltage regulators.  Do not add the LED's yet. Also do not add the MicroSD Card Adaptor. Be sure you put the resistor arrays in with the correct orientation of pin 1. Check their values before soldering (they are difficult to remove).  Insert all jumper arrays.  Note there are two sockets for the Pololu 5V regulator. While the older ones (D24V25F5) are still available, it seems Pololu is suggesting users use the D24V22F5's (5V, 2.5 Amp) units. 

The 3.3V LM3904 3.3V regulator requires the removal of two or three of the fins on the LHS to fit under the Pololu 5V regulator. Here is a close-up picture.  Use a Jameco #70658 heat sink.  This regulator does not get even warm, but I always like to use heat sinks.  Take care the side of the heat sink does not touch the two caps on its RHS. I like to use a mica washer under this sink.
    
    Heat Sink
Please take care to not "slobber" solder on the sockets. They are very closely spaced on this board with vias often close to a socket pin - particularly for the FPGA adaptor sockets.
  
For prototype boards I generally use "double swipe" IC sockets. For a critical board like this I prefer to use "Machine Tooled" IC sockets.  However they are more expensive and you have to be particularly careful not to bend the IC pins.  The 2MHz clock oscillator can have its own special sockets (e.g. Jameco #133006) but actually I find the "Machine Tooled" IC sockets make a better connection.  I in fact solder the 2MHz oscillator (P7) directly to the board since it will never be changed.   Solder in the buzzer SP1 with the "+" pin on the RHS. You may wish to play around with the buzzer sound volume by replacing the 100 Ohm resistor R11 with a lower one say 75 Ohms or 33 Ohms to get a louder buzzer sound later. So solder it high on the board for easy removal.

Do NOT insert a 3 pin jumper in position K6 (it interferes with the WaveShare board).  Instead jumper K6 pins 2 & 3 with a short wire.

Place the board in the bus without any chips inserted. There are two separate voltage rails on this board 5V and 3.3V. Carefully examine the schematic and check the voltage to the individual sockets are either 5V or 3.3V.      

Your system should boot and run correctly with its Z80 master CPU board. If not, you have a serious solder bridge somewhere on the board.  Before you do anything else with a magnifying glass go over every socket on the board and examine for proper solder joints. I like to "reheat" each joint just to be on the safe side. The silk screen/varnish on these boards is quite thick. It's easy not to have a good solder joint for the ground pins.  Double check.   Extra time here will save you hours later, (Been there, done that! ). 

Add the 12 LED's.  The longer of the two leads for most LED usually goes into the square pad on the board.
Before soldering them in place, and without the FPGA Adaptor, place the board in the S100 bus and ground the appropriate pins on the FPGA socket P6 to be sure they light up.  Be careful to stick a very narrow wire into pins  P6, 18-32. Also pin 18 of P7 (BOARD_ACTIVE).  Don't damage the socket pins.  The Dual Color LED K2 will need its pins slightly bent to fit.

Next (carefully with a probe) jumper pin 10 of the U12 socket to +5V and orientate the dual color (3 pin) LED in K2 so it shines Red  (not Green). 
Also ground pin 8 of P20 so the LED D10 lights up.
If all clear, then solder in and clip the extra wires of each LED.
(BTW, I always use a blue LED for D9 "Slave Active" in my systems). 

There is one major construction decision you need to make with this board right at the start.   The WaveShare unit uses unusual 2 mm dual row pin connectors. Unlike to normal 0.1" connectors these are quite rare and expensive (Digi-Key #S5750-30-ND) .  If you solder these female sockets to the board the WaveShare adaptor sits quite high on the board and will prevent the next S100 bus slot from being used.  If you carefully remove the JTAG socket top border edge with a wire cutter - all around about 1/8 "  It will fit into most S100 bus motherboards without taking up two slots. Alternatively you can solder the adaptor directly to the S100 board. Of course removing the adaptor is all but impossible in this case.  The actual pins for the adaptor are unusual. You will need to cut the above DigiKey 60 pin socket with a wire cutter to the required lengths. Cut the pin past the required length and file the cut end plastic to clean things up. Don't rush this process. Its critical it sits correctly on the board. First solder in each socket at two points. Insert the FPGA adaptor, then solder all the socket pins.

Likewise  if you are using a specialized "Shields Board" you might consider soldering the connector pins on that board to the corresponding holes on this main board.  However in almost all cases we will use 8X2 connector sockets on the main FPGA board.

BTW, the KiCAD footprint for the FPGA adaptor board took me three prototype boards to get it exactly right. If you ever want to do your own board I suggest you start from this board. The large number of close pins allow absolutely no margin in the fitting. 

       
Programming The FPGA.
We will first program the WaveShare/Cyclone IV FPGA just to flash the 4 LEDs on the Waveshare FPGA adaptor board. For this all we need is the two above voltage regulators and the WaveShare adaptor attached to the S100 board. 

Launch Quartus Prime and load the Project Demo_01.qpf and then the actual program,
Demo_01.bdf.   All the .qpf and .bdf files we will use are supplied at the bottom of this page.  Typically you would make a folder:

C:\intelFPGA_lite\quartus\MyFPGAPrograms\S100Boards

It is very useful to have before you a printout of the FPGA board schematic and the WaveShare schematic in the steps below.  The latter for example shows the FPGA pins for the on-board LEDs. In all our programs its critical the correct FPGA pins are associated .bdf file pins.  Also make sure that Quartus Prime knows/assumes you are, (in this case), utilizing the Cyclone IV EP4CE10F17C8 chip.  Before going forward, now is a good time to take another look at the ClockFabrick Electronics Academy video.

First is the very simple
Demo_01.bdf program.  It simply flashes the 4 LEDs on the WaveShare adaptor board. There is no interaction of the other FPGA pins with the S100 bus circuits. Note the file Demo_01.sof resides in the output_files directory. Also be sure your device is a EP4CE10F17.
          
If you have watched this video,  the above
.bdf program is obvious and trivial.
Here is a picture of the relevant Programming Dialog Box.
       
    Programmer Dialog Box
   
The board only contains the 5V and 3.3V regulators and filter caps. Be sure you have 3.3V and 5V going to the appropriate pins on the Waveshare FPGA adaptor socket.
The actual compiling and programming process does take longer than you might expect (~30 seconds for the above).

Note some "virgin" Cyclone IV Adaptor boards from WaveShare seem to have the FPGA preloaded with a program (in the
EPCS16 Flash RAM) that already pulses the 4 onboard LEDs.
Before programming the board note the rate/order at which the LEDs flash.

Upload the Demo_01.bpf  project and load the
Demo_01.brf file and program the FPGA with the Demo_01.sof file. The rate/order of the LEDs should change. 
Power down and re-power up the board. The original WaveShare rate/order of the flashing LEDs should return. 
This is because so far, for now, we are just dumping the FPGA code into the chip (not the Flash RAM).

You must get the above
Demo_01.bdf program to work before going further.   Here is a picture of the board at this time.
   
   FPGA_Step1
   
Add back the FPGA Adaptor board and reprogram the FPGA with the above
Demo_01.brf program.
The D9 LED (
BOARD_ACTIVE*) should not light up (until you have an FPGA program running).

Next add U10 and U28.  Jumper the LHS FPGA Shields Connector P4, 7-8 (XRDY).   Jumper K1 2-3 and P21 2-3. K1 is under U17.

From your Z80 monitor display RAM
D0,FFFF

Your system should continuously scroll through your RAM display. 
With this process running, upload the
Demo_01.bdf program.
You should see the Z80 pauses and restart continuously as the S100 bus
XRDY lime pulses low.

While this is a very simple program it shows that your FPGA is able to control the S100 bus (via
XRDY).     
This is important because you are using the U10 3.3V level shifter to activate the 5V
XRDY line.  Here is a picture of the board at this stage.
   
    FPGA_Step2
     
Next we will use our FPGA board to do something useful.  Again starting off very simple.   We will program the FPGA board to display on it 8 LEDs (D1-D8) the 8 bit value sent to the S100 bus I/O port
68H.  (Assuming port 68H is unused in your system. Use your Z80 Master  monitor "R" command to check).

This will involve reading the S100 bus ports 16 address lines and the CPU's 8 bit S100 bus Data Out lines. When
sOUT goes high and pWR* goes low, the data to be displayed on the LEDs is latched.  There are numerous ways this can be programmed into the FPGA.  For simplicity,  I will use the 74xxx library approach in the .bdf file. 

The first thing one always has to consider is if the board is going to be considered a
SLAVE or MASTER bus board.  This critically defines the direction 74LVC245 level shifters to the S100 bus address, status and control lines.   We are clearly talking SLAVE mode here.  The FPGA will INPUT all these lines from the S100 bus and act accordingly.   This critical decision is set by the "DIRECTION" signal from jumper P21

LOW (Gnd)
DIRECTION = Slave Mode, S100 bus data from the bus to the FPGA.  (P21 jumpered 2-3, LED K2 Red, when U12 is inserted and the FPGA sets 5V_DIRECTION)
HIGH (3.3V)
DIRECTION = Master Mode, data from the FPGA to the  S100 bus.    (P21 jumpered 1-2, LED K2 Green, when U12 is inserted  and the FPGA sets 5V_DIRECTION )

BTW, this
DIRECTION can be read on pin L16 of the FPGA if you need the information in programming the FPGA. 
For those more experienced, by jumpering K2 2-4, you can dynamically change the bus direction (
F_DIRECTION_SET, pin G16).  More on this later.

It is very important to appreciate that the boards bus level shifters (U7, U6, U5, U3, U4, U14 and U20 all 74LVC 245's) are directly connect to the S100 bus lines (on their 5V side).    These are powerful drivers.  You must always take care the their
OE* pin 19 is always HIGH unless you wish to interact with the S100 bus.   As you build your board below, always check that all their pin 19's are HIGH before adding the chip.  Fortunately all pins on the Cyclone IV are high on power up and before programming.  Carefully consider each 74LVC245s direction and OE* at all times. You do not want a bus conflict with your Z80 CPU boards buffers for example.

There are many ways a circuit could be programmed with the Cyclone IV and this board to write to an S100 I/O port.  Rather than be smart/elegant I will use a simple brute force approach.    This is one of the things you quickly realize using FPGA's is that there is almost endless supply of gates.  It is doubtful you will ever get close to using up the chips programming capacity, so you can afford to be "sloppy" duplicating circuits, overkilling "what if" scenarios etc.  You will find yourself laying down circuits that you would never consider on a 5"X10" S100 board with 74LSxx chips.  That said,  I cannot over-emphasize the importance of adding functionality one step/circuit at a time as you build your circuit.  Use the four onboard LEDs (L1-L4) of the WebShare adaptor board to flag/indicate your process.    Finally, I recommend you save your
.brf file (as a different name) as you step things along. That way if all fails, you can fall back to a previous version.  (Saved my neck several times already).

Quartus Prime is very powerful with almost endless options.  I do find it's somewhat "finicky" however with cut and past of circuits in your
.brf file.  Its best to add circuits from the top menus as you need them. 
 
Remove the above FPGA Shields Connector Jumper P4, 7-8 (XRDY).
Add U12 and be sure to have jumper P21 2-3 (
Slave Mode). 
Add U7, U6, U5, U4, U14, U20 and U17.  Place the card in the bus, the LED K2 should be Red.
U17 pin 19 will always be low and its pin 1 high.

Open the Project FPGA_Board_Port_Output_Test.qpf and the file
FPGA_Board_Port_Output_Test.bdf from the bottom of this page. 
If you have built any of our many S100 Bus boards in the past you will have no difficulty understanding the FPGA "circuit". 
Essentially the FPGA reads the bus address lines
A0-A15 and sends them to a pair of 74684 comparators.  If it detects a bus output (sOUT high) for port 68H it will send the eight S100 bus Data Out lines to internal latches which are read by the eight onboard LED's.
Here is the core
.bdf circuit.
Using our Z80 CPU board and its Master monitor to output to port
68H should set the LEDs. For example:-
 
QO68,33

     
   PortOut2
 
As you can see the circuit is dirt simple. In writing programs/circuits like this you do have to be very careful that you assign the correct FPGA pin number to each signal. 
As mentioned above, always be careful with the 74LVC245
OE* pins.  Here is a picture of the board at this stage.
    
     FPGA_Step3
    
Next will write a simple FPGA program to allow our Z80 to read a value from port 68H.
Add U3. 
We will use the onboard 4 position dip switch
SW2 to define the upper and lower nibbles of the port data. 
This time open the Project FPGA_Board_Port_Input_Test.qpf and the file
FPGA_Board_Port_Input_Test.bdf.  The circuit is essentially the same as the previous one except this time we use the Z80 master monitor to input a value from port 68H.

QI68, 00110011

The core circuit is shown here.
    
  PortIn1

You should always see the 4 bit value from SW2 in the upper and lower nibbles from your Z80 master monitor. If not don't go further until you resolve the problem.  For example enter the following Z80 code in RAM at 0H and jump to it.

DB 68
C3 00 00


Add LED "flags" (L1,L2,L3 or L4 on the FPGA Adaptor) at various points in the .bdf to see where the problem is for debugging.

Now let us combine the two circuits. We will have an output port and input port at
68H.  The circuit is essentially a combination of the two above circuits with some bells and whistles.  Load the Project Port_IO_Test.qpf and the file Port_IO_Test.bdf and program the FPGA.
In this mode when you output to port
68H in your Z80 monitor you should see the LED's display the correct Hex value.
When you input from port
68H you should get the same value back.

QO68,33
QI68
00110011



The FPGA Board as a Bus Master
Now lets move things up a notch in terms of complexity, lets configure the board to temporary
Master mode and have it control the S100 bus lines rather than reading them.  We will have the board act as a Temporary bus master (just like our many previous CPU boards such as our 8086, 80486, 68030 etc.).   Note this configuration is not for everybody.  Switching S100 bus control is tricky (see here), the vast majority of applications for this board will probably be as a bus slave. Nevertheless since the Cyclone IV has its very own internal Neos II CPU, a bus master role is interesting.

First we jumper P21 1-2 so
DIRECTION is HIGH (3.3V). The LED K2 should now be Green.  This way the 74LVC245 buffers U7, U5, U3,U4, U14 and U20 are outputting to the S100 bus.  Critically however, in every case the OE* pin is High.  (All FPGA pins are high on power-up). 

Add U11 and U16. Jumper the LHS FPGA Shields Connector P4 1-2 and P2 4-5. Add jumper JP15 for the buzzer.  Jumper P2 4-5 (TMA0*).

Next just as for our many other CPU boards,  we need a circuit to transfer control from the Z80 CPU board (the Bus master) to our new Temporary Bus Master on the S100 bus.  This process is explained in some detail here.  After reading that article the FPGA_Board_AddressLinesTest.qpf project and
FPGA_Board_AddressLinesTest.bdf file (see the bottom of this page), should make sense. Here is the key Master/Slave transfer circuit.  For simplicity we will generate a PHI clock of 1MHz.  (By changing the Clock PLL01_50 it can be anything up to about 10MHz).
   
    Handshake

The two above signals XFERI and XFERII are then utilized in the sequential transfer of control of the Z80 Address, data, status and control lines to the FPGA board.
The SMB actually requires a valid pSYNC, pSTVAL and pDBIN to latch the address lines into that boards HEX digital display. These are synthesized by the circuit below.
      
    Control Signals
  
To run this "program", boot up your Z80 and load up the FPGA code. Then transfer control to
TMA0 from your Z80 Monitor ("O"  command).  You should see the S100 bus Address lines and Data lines continuously change in value.  Please see the short video I made of this using the V1 Board.
      
As for the V1 Board, pressing the SW1 switch will hold the address & data lines. The buzzer should also sound.  Releasing the SW1 button and the count process should continue.
Please study and understand everything in the FPGA_Board_AddressLinesTest.bdf file before proceeding further.  It is essential that you understand ever aspect of that file before going further. From now on almost everything is going to be FPGA programming!   Here is a picture of the board at this stage.
   
    FPGA_Step4
 Add all remaining IC's to the board. We will utilize the almost 60 spare pins of the Cyclone IV to adapt the board to our own custom circuits or old S100 Bus Board emulations.

Future FPGA Code/Configurations will be listed below.


Burning FPGA Code to Flash RAM
Up until now whenever we programmed our FPGA via  the JTAG socket the data is lost whenever the power is turned off.   While fine for code development etc. it is not desirable for a final board configuration.  Like most FPGA applications the "final" code is saved in Flash RAM and immediately loaded by the FPGA each time upon power-up.  This is a standard and common characteristic of most FPGA's. Some older models in fact had a ROM onboard.    Our Cyclone IV Adaptor board has 16MB of Flash RAM on board for this purpose -- way more than we are ever going to need!

The tricky part is programming this Flash RAM.  I found the Intel documentation poor and confusing.  Here is a summary of the process: 
Within Quartus you need to "convert" your normal JTAG FPGA .sof programming file to a special file .jic to program the Serial Flash RAM chip on the Weveshare board.

Within Quartus, click on the File Menu and select "Convert Programming files". The dialog box below will popup.
From the dropdown box on the "Programming File Type"  select a .jic file type.
This is the file format that is required to program the onboard serial Flash RAM.
For the Options/Boot info select EPCS16. Leave Active Serial as is.
You can name the .jic output file anything you like. I usually just leave it output_file.jic.
Note it will be in the Ouartus generated "output_files" folder within your work directory.

Next click on Flash loader within the lower "Input Files to Convert", then click on the highlighted "Add Device" button.
You will get a popup dialog box as shown below.
Select Cyclone IV  and EP4CE10.  Note Quartus takes some time to allow you to actully select these options -- seems to be doing things in the background!
Next click on "SOF Data" and "Add File".  You should see your "normal" FPGA program .sof file in your "output_files" folder within your work directory.
Finally click the "Generate" button.
You should get a popup dialog saying "Generated output_files/output_file.jic successfully.
Note the name and location of the converted file. Then close that dialog box.  See the pictures below.
                
    Programming 1     Programming 2
 
Programming 3 Programming 4
   
Programming 5
  
Next we need to actually flash the Waveshare boards RAM chip.
Click on the normal "Progarm Device (Open Programmer)" you normally use. If its not already open,  give it time to come up as a dialog box.
Make sure your board has power.  To be safe click the Auto Detect button. your normal xxx.sof file should display with the device set as EP4CE10F17.

First delete the above line xxx.sof  |  EP4CE10F17 etc.
Click on Add File and select the xxx.jic file (in your file_output directory) you generated above.
Click on the Program/Configure little square character.
The Start button should highlight.
Click on this and you will flash the RAM chip.  Follow the Progress bar until it is done.
You can power off and re-power your computer.
Your FPGA board should (after reset), start with whatever FPGA code is within the chip.
 
Programming 8
 
Note when you close the above dialog box, normally you do NOT save the changes.
Typically you want the chip to be quickly reprogrammable.


The Arduino UNO section.
The central section of the patch area contains support circuitry to run a ATMEGA 328 CPU.  The four shield sockets have the same pinout as the Arduino UNO and that of our Mega 328-2560 Board. If you wish to use this feature please see the Mega 328-2560 Board page write-up.  There is sufficient space in the patch area to place a simple circuit. There are a number of spare pins on P61, P4 and P60 to allow a linkage with the FPGA.   Of course standard Arduino Shield boards should also work. 

To test the basic circuit we run the equivalent "Hello World" Arduino test we flash a LED with
Blink.INO.   Simply insert a the long lead (+) of an LED into pin 6 or P26 (UNO Pin13). Insert the short lead into P26-7 (GND).  If you happen to have an Arduino UNO (or equivalent) program it with BLINL.INO.    The LED should blink in the UNO board.  Remove the 328 CPU from the UNO board and insert it into the FPGA Board U8 socket. Again insert the LED into P26 as you did for the UNO board. Upon power up the LED should blink.    If not don't go further until you fix the problem. The simple BLINK.INO code can be downloaded from the bottom of this page.
Here is a picture.
      
     Arduino LED
   
Next we need to add the circuit to program the Arduino UNO circuit.  While you can always program the ATMEGA 328 CPU via the ICSP (P80) socket, it requires a special programmer.  More commonly one simply programs the CPU via a USB port connection to its Rx,Tx pins.  For this we use the same circuit we used in our Mega 328-2560 board.  Add the SparkFun FT231x USB->Serial Converter to P45.  You only actually need the bottom P45 pins but using the side pins gives the unit more strength. You need to solder the unit directly to the board in order for the FPGA boards to fit overhead.  It looks like the Adfruit CP2104 is an equivalent adaptor (at half the price) but i have not checked it out yet.

Add jumpers P46 1-2 7 2-3 (vertically). Jumper K4 2-3. If you press your computer reset bottom the D11 LED should flash.

Upload the above BLINK.INO code again into the CPU -- this time using a USB cable from your PC and the Arduino Sketch Upload menu item within the Arduino IDE.
You can change the blink frequency to reassure your upload has worked.  During an upload the surface mount LED on the FT231x unit flash.
Here is a picture of the board at this stage.
     
     FPGA_Stage5
   
Finally we will utilize the Arduino CPU to access an SD card. 
Insert the Adafruit Micro SD Card adaptor. Again I like to solder the unit directly to the board. But you can use a socket if you like for easy removal.  We will run this card (for now)  from our Arduino CPU. So we will need 5V to the card (jumper P42 3-4).  Be real careful you jumper P82 to the nearest pins on P70. See the picture below. It is critical you do NOT connect the FPGA the 3.3V pins (P70 2,4,6,8 to P70 1,3,5,7).  Double check and see the picture below.     
        FPGA_Step6
   
We will load the Arduino SD Card Read/Write demo program we used for our Mega 328-2560 Board.  Load the program
SDCARDInfo_328 via the USB port described above, open up the serial COM Arduino Dialog box (Top RHS Icon within the IDE) and run it.   You should see something like this:-
  
     FPGA_Step7

Please see our Mega 328-2560 board for more information as to how to utilize this SD card with the Arduino software and CPU.


V2 FPGA Board & Code Circuits For FPGA Shields.

This section, over time, will contain separate page links on this site to new FPGA code and board circuits using the above V2 board. There are now almost limitless examples of FPGA code in the public domain for most major digital electronic circuits. Two popular sites are OpenCores Grants MUlTICOMP and fpga4fun. If you develop a useful FPGA application with this board please consider sending it to me, I will place it in this section.

      Board Circuit Name  (Click to Select)        FPGA Shield Board   Board Description  
  UART_PORT_V2 #1   A simple UART port interface to the S100 Bus.   
   1602 LCD Display_V2  #1   Interfacing to a dual line 1602 LCD Display Module 
    A VGA PONG GAME_V2 #1   A simple VGA interface demo. 
    RAM_DEMO V2  #1   A 4K OnChip Static RAM Circuit 
    PS2_KEY_V2 #1   A simple PS2 keyboard input port example 
    PS2_LCD V2 #1   Display a PS2 keyboard input on a 1602 LCD Display 
    SPI INTERFACE V2 #1   An SPI 16 bit Communications Interface to a Digital Potentiometer
    I2C INTERFACE_V2 #1   An I2C Communications Interface to an EEPROM
    SPI_INTERFACE V2  #1   An improved SPI interface with 8, 16, 24, 32, .... bits 
     VGA CHARACTER DISPLAY #1  A VGA Terminal Character display within the FPGA 



Notes

This Board is a completely self contained S100 Bus Master as defined by the IEEE-696 Specs.  It can therefore be run outside the S100 bus on its own if you simply provide power to it.  There are two pins P31 for ground and P30 for an 8-10V input to do this.  Please use the upmost care in doing this. Make sure the board is sitting on an insulated background (glass/wood etc.).  

 

There appears to be a few variations of the 74LVC245 20 pin DIP level Shifters chips with "A", "AN" etc after the 245.   As best I can tell so long as they are 20 pin DIPs they are all OK. I use Mouser chips # 595-SN74LVC245AN.   The WaveShare Cyclone IV adaptor can be obtained directly from WaveshareThe WaveShare unit uses unusual 2mm dual row pin connectors. Unlike to normal 0.1" connectors these are quite rare an expensive (Digi-Key #S5750-30-ND). You need to carefully cut them to size, carefully cutting off the extra pins with a wire cutter.  The USB serial Adaptor is from Sparkfun F1231x.  The Micro SD Card adaptor is from AdaFruit.

Please note the Digi-Key #S5750-30-ND sockets for the WaveShare adaptor are quite tricky to fit on to the board.  I found the best way to do it is (after trimming to size), push them half way on to the adaptor pins and then wiggle them to fit the whole unit on to the S100 board.  Figure on spending 10 minutes on this step!  Do not solder them to the board first and then try and press the adaptor down on them. They are very fragile and internally the leaves will bend if socket angles are not exactly correct.  When in place, check each pin is visible on the back of the board before soldering.  Only then solder all around.  Add as little solder to each pin as possible - the narrow pins have a tendency to wick up solder internally. 

Leonard Young recently pointed out better sockets are available from Mouser (Preci-dip 833-87-038-10-001101)  as part 437-8338703810001101 for $3.04 ea.  You’ll need a few,  since 38 positions is a 2x19 strip.

To remove the adaptor,  leaver each corner up a little going round and round. The first time its quite difficult to get the adaptor out. It gets easier with time.

The the ATMEGA-328 AVCC and VCC are connect backwards. The AVCC should be getting all the filtering. The error will only effect A/D readings using the ATMEGA-328 and then only accuracy will be affected.  If necessary, replace the Inductor L1 with a wire.  Bend out  the CPU pin 20 and connect a 20uH choke to it and Vcc. Also connect a 0.1uF cap to pin 20 and ground.

Please note there was an fatal error with one production run of this board (labeled V2.1
b) by PCBCart.  That board had the front and back traces reversed. A second board (labeled V2.1c) was sent to all users at the time.
The actual KiCAD files for the V2.01b and 2.01c boards are identical.   You can use the V2.1b KiCAD files below fine if you wish to make your own new board.  Here is a picture of the front of the correct and incorrect V2.1b boards.
   
    Correct V2.1b Board

For more information about installing Quartus see here.

A Production S-100 Board
Realizing that a number of people might want to utilize a board like this together with a group of people on the  Google Groups S100Computers Forum, a "group purchases" is now open. Contact and join the group if you would like to be involved in this project.  Please see here for more information.
 
Please note the final verson of this board (V2.1b) differs very slightly in the placement of some of the components shown on this page. 

The links below will contain the most recent schematic of this board.
Note, it may change over time and some IC part or pin numbers may not correlate exactly with the text in the article above.


FPGA Shield #0 Board KiCAD Files                                (V2.1b 4/15.2019)
FPGA Shield #0 Gurber Files                                         (V2.1b 4/15.2019)
FPGA Shield #1 Board KiCAD Files
                               (V2.1b 4/15.2019)
FPGA Shield #1 Gurber Files
                                       (V2.1b 4/15.2019)
FPGA Shield #1 Schematic.PDF                                    (V2.1b 4/15.2019)

Most current KiCAD files for this board (.ZIP File)                (V2.0b  2/23/2019)
Most current Gerber files for this board                                         (V2.1b 4/15.2019)
Most current Schematic for this board (.pdf file)                     
(V2.0b 2/23/2019)
Shield Sockets Pinout.PDF                                                                (V1.0 2/24/2019)
KiCAD BOM for this board  V2.1 (.pdf file)
                                (V2.1c  6/7/2019,  Supplied by Rick Bromagen)
KiCAD BOM for this board V2.1 (.xls file)                     (V2.1c  6/7.2019,  Supplied by Rick Bromagen)  
Board layout (.pdf file)                                                (V2.1b  4/25.2019,  Supplied by Rick Bromagen)  
         
                                    

Demo_01.zip                                  (V1.0  9/5/2018)
PortInTest.zip                                  (V1.0  9/5/2018)
PortOutTest.zip                               (V1.0  9/5/2018)
Port_IO_Test.zip                           (V1.0  9/5/2018)
AddressLinesTest.zip              
  (V1.0  9/5/2018)
BLINK.INO                                         (V1.0 2/24/2019)
SD_CARD.Zip                                (V1.0 3/24/2019)



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This page was last modified on 11/10/2019