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Introduction to GALs and PALASM
In the mid 1970's "programmable logic device" (PLD) chips started to appear that contained reconfigurable digital circuits. Unlike 74xxx type logic gates, which has a fixed function, a PLD device has an undefined function at the time of manufacture. Before the PLD could be used in a circuit it had to be "burned" or programmed, much like a ROM. 

There were numerous early arrangements of this concept (ROAMs, PLA's etc.), but a company called Monolithic Memories (MMI) introduced a breakthrough device in 1978, the Programmable Array Logic or PAL. These devices had arrays of transistor cells arranged in a "fixed-OR, programmable-AND" plane that could be used to implement "sum-of-products" binary logic equations for each of the output pins in terms of the input pins. If required, they could also utilize either synchronous or asynchronous internal feedback circuits from the outputs.  These "PALs" were soon second sourced by National Semiconductor, TI and AMD.  What really got the concept going was the simultaneous introduction of a programming language to program/burn these PAL's.  The language was called PALASM.  This language allowed the user to configure the PAL essentially without any knowledge if it's internal workings.

MMI started with a 20 pin chip, AMD introduced a very flexible 24 pin chip the so called 22V10 which proved very successful. 

In 1985 Lattice Semiconductor significantly improved on the PAL concept by making the chips electrically programmable (like EEPROMS).  Until then all PALs had a one time "burn" or programming function.  If done wrong the PAL was useless.  These new electrically programmable chips were called GAL's.  GALs combine CMOS and electrically erasable (E2) floating gate technology to yield a high-speed, low-power logic device, they essentially replaced PAL's over time. In fact Lattice Semiconductor went on to acquired MMI.

Today Lattice and others have many more sophisticated and larger forms of these chips, but in general the technology has evolved into FPGA devices.  However the simple 16V8 and 22V10 chips are still found in millions of devices.

The GAL22V10
There are many types of GAL's available today.  Very common are 16V8's, 20V8's and 22V10's.   The first two digits refer to the total number of programmable pins, the second the number of programmable outputs.  Since these chips are so inexpensive we will overkill, and concentrate on the 22V10.  If required we can just ignore any unused pins.  Here is what the chip looks like:-
  GAL Pinout GAL Schematic
GAL22V10 Picture
A few points to keep in mind with this chip. 
1. While any of the 22 pins can act as inputs or output pins, pins 1-11 and  13 can only behave as inputs.
2. If one or more outputs are to behave as "register" outputs, i.e. clocked or latched,  pin 1 is the clocking pin.
3. If one or more outputs are to utilize an OE control, pin 13 is the normal OE pin.
4. Unconnected, all pins have an internal active pull-up connection.
5. The chip is capable of very high speed operation (166MHz), is TTL compatible, able to sink 12 milli-amps per output pin.
6. The chip can not be programmed indefinitely. Lattice quotes 100 erase/write cycles and data retention in excess of 20 years.
7. Note the number of possible input equation values that use the OR statement for the output pins varies a lot.  They are as follows:-

         Pins 23 & 14 = 8  (OR's)
         Pins 22 & 15 = 10  (OR's)
         Pins 21 & 16 = 12  (OR's)
         Pins 20 & 17 = 14  (OR's)
         Pins 18 & 19 = 16  (OR's)

Remember the number of product terms indicated for each pin does not limit the AND statements, it limits only the number of OR statements.
Be careful not to overload these pins.  Essentially for any one pin, there should be less than 8 to 16 lines of code (if you had a "+" on each line).
This is not normally a problem but you should be aware of it.  For large PALASM equations you can use one output pin as a temporary placeholder for a value used in a further pin output equation. Clearly the central pins 18 and 19 are used a lot.

WARNING.  There are many of these GALs out there with similar sounding name/designations.  An extra letter etc. often means a totally different internal GAL structure.  Unless otherwise stated,  on S100Cpmputers.com,  22V10 GALS refer to the Lattice GAL22V10-15 (a 15ns 132x44 AND array) GALs. These are sold by Unicorn Electronics.  For some reason I have not had good success with the Atmel equivalent GALs. They behave as if not programmed correctly -- at least with the VP290 programmer (see below).

Clearly for these chips to be of any use they need to be programmed.  Also you will need a "GAL Programmer".  There are a number of these available on the web.  They are not cheap, typically starting at $200.  If you are doing any serious S100 bus board construction you should get a unit that programs GAL's, PROMS and EEPROMS.  I have been using the Wellon V290 (or more recently its upgrade the VP-299). Be warned some of these programmers,  the software has not been upgraded to work with Windows 10. Always ask first.  

  Wellon V290
This unit can program almost any type of EPROM or EEPROM out there.  However I found that to program Lattice GAL22V10 (or GAL16V8) one must set the GAL type to Lattice and set the Erase, Program and Verify options on.  Be careful to match the selected GAL type/manufacture with your actual GAL chip.  A wrong combination will inactivate the GAL immediately.  I used Lattice 22V10 GAL's from Unicorn Electronics.
All GAL's (and PAL's) are programmed with a file whose extension is .JED.  There appears to be an earlier version of the .JED file format which programs like Opel produce.  However at least for the Wellon programmer, .JED files generated by that MSDOS program did not program any of my GAL's correctly.  I wasted a lot of time on this until I found out that the MSDOS program PALASM4 yielded properly programmed 22V10 GAL's. 
The MSDOS program PALASM4 is widely available on the web (eg http://www.bitsavers.org/components/mmi/palasm_pleasm/PALASM_4_V1.5). Please see the bottom of this page to download the program.  The program was (and probably still is) provided by AMD.  The manual which they refer to as the MACHXL Software's user Guide  can be obtained here.  As best I can tell, all the MACHXL menu commands, formats, etc. are identical to the PALASM4 commands. AMD a while back renamed all their PAL and GAL chips MACH1xx, MACH2xx, MACH3xxx, MACH4xx etc.  However the program still recognizes the old PAL names as well in the program line that specifies the chip type (see below).   I will not describe the PALASM  language commands themselves -- they are very simple and are well described in the manual.

The PALASM download describe above is contained on three 1.44MB floppy disks, (see bottom of this page for a download).  If you run it on an old PC it should install relatively simply on a hard drive if you use MSDOS.  However it would really be nice to run it on a modern Windows 7 or 8 (64 bit), or similar system.    There are probably a number of ways to do this, but I really like a Windows program called DOSBOX which allows you run almost any DOS program in a modern Windows environment.  DOSBOX is very popular with Gamers and is easy to install.  It can be downloaded from here (or the bottom of this page).

DOSBOX comes up with Z: as its root directory.  Normally you will assign a folder for your DOS programs. You use the "Mount" command to do this.  I will place it on my F: drive in a new folder in the root directory called DOSBOX:-

Mount f F:\DOSBOX

Then CD F:
This will bring you to what MSDOS thinks is the root F: drive.
We need to place the PALASM program with its sub-directories in its own folder, so make one


Download and expand the complete PALASM_C.rar file (see below) to this folder.  There will be a number of sub-folders in this folder.

Before we run PALASM we first need to set a path command for it.  DOSBOX has a special way to implement the MSDOS AUTOEXEC.BAT file when it boots up.  On your windows system its called something like "dosbox-0.74.conf" and is found at:-

{system drive}

This is a notepad compatible file, scroll down to the bottom and add:-
# Lines in this section will be run at startup.
# You can put your MOUNT lines here.
mount F F:\dosbox



Save and close the file.

Now when you launch DOSBOX you will end up in the PALASM directory.  Type:-


It should look something like this.
  PALASM Signon
The program is fairly straightforward. I keep my S100 bus .PDS and .JED files in a folder called \PALASM\S100.  I actually find it easier to edit a file with windows Notepad, save it and then compile it with PALASM rather than use the PALASM editor.  You use the F10 key a lot with this program. The program has an extensive error checking component. If there is any format error in the starting .PDS file, errors will be listed and no .JED file will be produced.

Let us take a simple example of how we can condense a few 74LSxx circuits into a single GAL.
  ABC Circuit

This is a common circuit we have often used to activate 8 and 16 bit data buffers for R/W on to the S100 bus.  In the case of our ISA to S100 bus converter board a single GAL can handle the job:-
  GAL ABC Circuit

In fact a few extra functions are also added.

The relevant ABC.PDS file required to generate the ABC.JED file is here:-

TITLE ABC Drivers select signals for U15, U16 & U17 and S100_READ, S100_WRITE
AUTHOR John Monahan
DATE 03/30/14

CHIP ABC_GAL PALCE22V10 ; Device not selected

;---------------------------------- PIN Declarations ---------------

Pin 1 PHI                             ;Unused     --- INPUT SIGNALS
Pin 2 bpDBIN                          ;S100 bus CPU data in
PIN 3 bpWR                            ;S100 bus CPU data out
PIN 4 bsXTRQ                          ;LOW if 16 bit request
PIN 5 RAW_A0                          ;S100 bus A0
PIN 6 ISA_SEL                         ;ISA board select
PIN 7 DUAL                            ;HIGH if two back to back 8 bit writes
PIN 8 bsMWRT                          ;S100 memory write status
PIN 9 bsMEMR                          ;S100 memory read status
PIN 10 bsOUT                          ;S100 I/O write status
PIN 11 bsINP                          ;S100 I/O read Status
Pin 13 bsINTA                         ;S100 INTA

PIN 14 LED16                          ;Low for S100 16 bit Read/Write  ----- OUTPUT SIGNALS
PIN 15 C                              ;8 bit data TO CPU
PIN 16 B                              ;data exchange
PIN 17 A                              ;8 bit data from CPU
PIN 18 S100_READ                      ;S100 RAM or I/O Read
PIN 19 S100_WRITE                     ;S100 RAM or I/O Write
PIN 20 RD8                            ;(In case needed by DUAL_SEL GAL)
PIN 21 RD16                           ;(In case needed by DUAL_SEL GAL)
PIN 22 WR8                            ;(In case needed by DUAL_SEL GAL)
PIN 23 WR16                           ;(In case needed by DUAL_SEL GAL)

;----------------------------------- Boolean Equation Segment ------


RD8   =  bpDBIN *  bsXTRQ  * ISA_SEL * /DUAL           ;8 RD
RD16  =  bpDBIN * /bsXTRQ  * ISA_SEL * /DUAL           ;16 RD
WR8   = /bpWR   *  bsXTRQ  * ISA_SEL * /DUAL           ;8 WR
WR16  = /bpWR   * /bsXTRQ  * ISA_SEL * /DUAL           ;16 WR

/A  = RD8 + RD16 + WR16

/C  = RD16 + WR8 + RD8

/B  =  RD8 * /RAW_A0
     + WR8 * RAW_A0
     + /bsXTRQ

/S100_READ   =   bsMEMR * /bsINTA                    ;Read, Set pin 1 direction B <- A
             + bsINP * /bsINTA                       ;For now don't allow interrupts

/S100_WRITE  =  bsMWRT * /bsINTA
             + bsOUT * /bsINTA

/LED16       = /bsXTRQ * ISA_SEL * /DUAL

What is nice about using these GAL's is that changing the circuit is a trivial task.  The above ABC.PDS file is processed by the PALASM program to yield a ABC.JED file. This file is then utilized by the Wellon VP-290 program to "burn" the 22V10 GAL chip.  

While the PALASM program also has a "simulator" module to analyze the data, I find it best to place the chip on a breadboard with a 10 pin dip switch, some jumpers and a LED bar to confirm what I think I'm getting is in fact what the GAL delivers.   Time spent here will save you much more time later!

One final point about writing PALASM code.  You have to be take care to get active high and active low signals correct.  You can either define the pin signals as active HIGH or active LOW (with a "/" in front of the signal), If you then have an active LOW  in the equations you simply use the name without the "/". Using a "/" in the equation would be a double negative and flip its value to HIGH.

Alternatively you can define all pins as HIGH (no "/" anywhere in the pin definitions part)  and then in the equations use a "/" as needed.   The former case actually is more common,  though I often use and find the latter easier to understand.

DOSBOX Download
PALASM Download (DOSBOX version) (WinRAR format)
PALASM (Main folder (only) as a .ZIP file)

PALASM Users manual

Using WinCUPL to Program GAL's.

Now that we have all moved up to using CPLDs for our new S100 boards I recently realized that it is far easily program GALs with WinCUPL (see here) than PALASM.  WinCUPL not only does not require a DOS Box within windows, it is considerably faster and has better error detection.
To program a 22V10 with WinCUPL all you have to do is change the chip type. 
For example for the GAL2 of our PDP-11 CPU board we use the following code to identify the CPU power up condition with PALASM:-
It is important however that the file "Name" heading at the start of the .PLD file follows a DOS format (8.3 characters etc).

;PALASM Designed to pulse OE* U31 & U35 upon CPU startup
;---------------------------------- Declaration Segment ------------
TITLE Power Up Circuit For PDP11 Board
PATTERN Non Latched
AUTHOR John Monahan
COMPANY Vitasoft
DATE 4/3/2017

PALCE22V10         ;Select a GAL 22V10

;---------------------------------- PIN Declarations ---------------

PIN 2 DAL0                        ;Data lines
Pin 12 GND

Pin 14 LAIO3
Pin 15 BUFCTL@                     ;Low for read
Pin 18 U35
Pin 19 U31
Pin 20 P23       
Pin 21 NC
Pin 22 NC
Pin 23 NC

;----------------------------------- Boolean Equation Segment ------


:= /DAL0 * /DAL1 * /DAL2 * /DAL3 * /DAL4 * /DAL5 * /DAL6 * /DAL7 ; 000 GP read
      + /DAL0 * DAL1 * /DAL2 * /DAL3 * /DAL4 * /DAL5 * /DAL6 * /DAL7 ; 002 GP read

/U35 = /P23 * LAIO3 * LAIO2 * LAIO1 * /LAIO0 * /BUFCTL@

/U31 = /U35;

Note we use the register output mode for Pin 20 (P23).  For a 22V10 there is only one clock input (on pin 1).  The := uses this clock to latch the data.

The corresponding code for WinCUPL would be:-
First at the top of the program instead of:-
Device f1508ispplcc84;
which we typically have for our CPLD programs we have:-
Device   G22V10

So a typical heading would be:-
PDP_GAL3;    <- Must be DOS 8.3 Format
Assembly 0001;
Revision 1.0;
PartNo U33 22V10;
Device G22V10;
Company S100Computers.com;
Designer John Monahan;
Location CA,San Ramon;
Date 23 June 2017

After the rest of the typical CPLD header code, (pin numbers/names etc.)  we write the following WinCUPL code:-

!P23.d  =  !DAL0  & !DAL1 & !DAL2 & !DAL3 & !DAL4 & !DAL5  & !DAL6 & !DAL7             
         # !DAL0  &  DAL1 & !DAL2 & !DAL3 & !DAL4 & !DAL5  & !DAL6 & !DAL7;    

P23.ar  = 'b'0;
P23.sp  = 'b’0;

You need to add the dummy assignment of 'b’0 to .ar and .sp  to the registered p23 pin to suppress warnings in a mixed design. (A mixed design is  a design that has registered &  combinatorial outputs).  You then take the .JED file and burn your GAL as you did for PALASM.

You can get fancy with WinCUPL and write things like:-


!P23.d  = (GPCODE:[00]) # (GPCODE:[02]);

To help people transition for a while I will provide both types of GAL code listings (PALASM & WinCUPL).

Please note that when using the Wellon 290 to program these 22V10 GAL's I can only get the Lattice 22V10's to work.  I have been unsuccessful in getting the Atmel 22V10C's to work.  They program OK but do not seem to function.  Possibly the "C's" are a different interal configuration.  I use the Unicorn Electronics 22V10 15LPs

Here is our (very often used) "GAL0" GAL code written in PALASM:-
GAL0.PDS (PALASM Example).

Here is the same code written for WinCUPL:-
GAL0.PLD (WinCUPL Example).

This page was last modified on 01/28/2024